0000002021 00000 n 0000006072 00000 n %%EOF Reed canarygrass, Phalaris arundinacea, is a cool-season forage grass species used by Michigan farmers in certain situations.This grass does best in moist, cool climates. 0000070385 00000 n 0000032488 00000 n Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris arundinacea) is commonly found in Minnesota and is listed as invasive by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. It spreads aggressively. Lavergne, S., and J. Molofsky. Critical Review in the Plant Sciences 23(5): 415-429. Reed canarygrass is variable in morphology, so characteristics may depend upon the habitat. Reed Canary Grass. 0000071841 00000 n It out competes most native species as it forms large, single-species stands, outcompeting other species. This species can invade most types of wetlands, including marshes, wet prairies, sedge meadows, fens, stream and river banks, ditches and seasonally wet areas; it also grows in disturbed upland areas. H�\��n�0��z Reed canary grass is large and coarse, reaching up to nine feet … xref 0000032635 00000 n Disturbed wetlands are most susceptible to invasion. 0000010972 00000 n The native Reed Canary Grass is Phalaris arundinacea and the invasive Reed Canary Grass is a subspecies, Phalaris arundinacea subsp. h�b``�f``�����Z�� Ā B�@���q�a_���jxa����d����a� HL�V$����v Control Methods for Reed Canary Grass Phalaris arundinacea. Phalaris arundinacea, or reed canary grass, is a tall, perennial bunchgrass that commonly forms extensive single-species stands along the margins of lakes and streams and in wet open areas, with a wide distribution in Europe, Asia, northern Africa and North America. %PDF-1.5 %���� endstream endobj 17 0 obj <>>> endobj 18 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/Properties<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 19 0 obj <> endobj 20 0 obj <> endobj 21 0 obj <> endobj 22 0 obj <> endobj 23 0 obj [/ICCBased 42 0 R] endobj 24 0 obj <> endobj 25 0 obj <> endobj 26 0 obj <> endobj 27 0 obj <>stream �ϴ It is a major threat to natural wetlands. 0000032393 00000 n 0000524415 00000 n 0000012892 00000 n Reed canarygrass threatens wetlands, where it grows in dense stands and forms dense rhizome mats that crowd out native vegetation. Appearance Phalaris arundinacea is a cool-season perennial grass that grows to 6 ft. (1.7 m) tall. Native wetland and wet prairie species are replaced after several years of reed canary grass presence. 84 0 obj <>stream It is of particular concern because of the difficulty of selective control. 0000029605 00000 n <<958B835BCFA84A408A7D3FB0A450A7F4>]/Prev 905347>> 0 Brown. 0000519315 00000 n arundinacea (often shortened to … 0000070687 00000 n 0000072081 00000 n 0000002136 00000 n It not only offers nesting and cover to Pheasants but also provides wild birds with nesting sites. h��VYk�@�+}l�����i!�C�Bȃ�G`KAV���wf��%G5��B�=fv�of�%#�pɉT0 bL�/`VD �&�i� ��pa����$(f��'�K\"�N�Ti����U��� �+�zrB'���(WɒNDŽ�۟�)={��o��JG�G�H� �c���yE. This species is very aggressive; growing in thick, dense mats, it prevents other native wetland plants from growing. 0 Reed canary grass is found to date in one approximately 30-acre patch in the eastern part of the refuge, between pools J-1 and G-1. 0000018711 00000 n However, according to the Plants Database Invasive reed canary grass grows densely, preventing or crowding out natural regeneration of wetland trees and shrubs. Seeds may be dispersed fr… It prefers fertile, moist and swampy soils and is especially well-suited to areas along waterways that frequently overflow. Reed canarygrass grows extensively in sunny, wet areas such as wetlands, meadows, stream banks and the edges of lakes and ponds. 0000004396 00000 n �C�.� ���?���%�P˂,���p�� �CS��v�U�ݽ��a1������b�����z��]0�pƬ�L?t�c�~�s;ey�߯K8���%k�����e���u9��,�>�aƓy���?�|������f�2}8ƍ��ӷ�L��^v}\��K��|��} Its invasion can cause siltation in irrigation ditches. It does not provide adequate forage or cover for wildlife. Blue joint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis) is a native that is shorter than reed canary grass and more draping rather than upright. 0000033285 00000 n H��VM��6����diR�d��A�����i]�D{YH�BRu�_�!%;�S��6,�"g޼y���`�~Iag 16 0 obj <> endobj Reed canarygrass was the third most commonly observed invasive plant species, after multiflora rose and garlic mustard. Appearance Phalaris arundinacea is a cool-season perennial grass that grows to 6 ft. (1.7 m) tall. 0000004283 00000 n 0000003222 00000 n 16 69 �R[h�h�Y�Y�Vh�Y�Y�X�X2X0�^B/���K�%�x �^B/��xj���#d0� ���A� ��c������������������E��2V��U�*c��\��>�=4�Դ'sQ��%� �V�k�Po�Y�t��q֐�2_E��8g��3_�|=�=�=�=�=�=�=�=�=�=�=�=�=�=�=�=�=�=�=�=�kxUE��kK �Z��_o����d�nB�ů�����6ϱ�ӧ#�/:w���e�L&F��� 0 �F Morrison SL; Molofsky J, 1998. Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea)—grows in dense stands of bright green along streams throughout the Willamette Valley, spreading by rhizomes, rhizome fragments and abundantly produced seeds (each flower can produce 600 seeds!). It was not found on plots in Maryland, South Dakota, and Rhode Island. 0000541646 00000 n endstream endobj 113 0 obj <>/Metadata 13 0 R/Pages 110 0 R/StructTreeRoot 33 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 114 0 obj <>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 110 0 R/Resources<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 115 0 obj <>stream 0000072650 00000 n Once established, reed canary grass forms dense patches that exclude native plants and wildlife. 0000069956 00000 n Like most invasive plants, reed canary grass threatens to replace native plants in high quality natural areas, especially wetlands, which in turn reduces critical … 147 0 obj <>stream USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. 0000011986 00000 n The dense growth characteristic this plant causes a number of problems. 4). From May to mid-June, reed canary grass produces small purple or green flowers that eventually turn beige. The application allowed native sedges and forbs to dominate where reed canary grass was present. Control strategies for the invasive reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) in North American wetlands: the need for an integrated management plan. 0000534430 00000 n 0000069919 00000 n 0000072377 00000 n |��g0�5�_`�����������@ �)��ր�Í�,.�n\Sx��0�1�3070�2�=`~���qZ �f���80: m�? Reed canary grass (hereafter RCG) is a threat to the ecological integrity of countless wetlands across Wisconsin. Natural resource: Invasive reed canary grass aggressively displaces native wetland species and changes the hydrology of natural water systems. Bernthal and Hatch (2008) found that 1 in ... native plants or seed often have other invasive species present, have higher management costs, and require more years of treatment to establish a desirable replacement plant community. 0000521082 00000 n 0000016062 00000 n 0000518907 00000 n Reed canary grass is common in wetlands throughout Wisconsin and is one of our state’s worst invasive species. Reed canarygrass is variable in morphology, so characteristics may depend upon the habitat. endstream endobj 33 0 obj <>stream Habitat. Foliage Leaf blades are flat, 1-4 ft. (0.3-1.2 m) long, up to 0.75 in. 0000070332 00000 n A second growth spurt occurs in the fall. 0000033571 00000 n %PDF-1.5 %���� 0000070029 00000 n 0000071537 00000 n 0000006691 00000 n 0000004923 00000 n The shoots collapse in mid to late summer, forming a dense, impenetrable mat of stems and leaves. Than reed canary grass presence ): 415-429 lakes and ponds canarygrass threatens wetlands, where grows! 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