Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease with a worldwide distribution, and is an emerging infectious disease in humans 1 and in dogs. We will discuss everything you need to know about the —Leptospirosis and its vaccination. Symptoms can range from mild lethargy and depression, to more serious symptoms like abdominal pain, jaundice, and liver damage. If you truly are concerned ask your vet the following questions: Side effects and adverse reactions to vaccines can be both mid to severe. Leptospirosis in dogs is most commonly found in Hawaii, the west coast (especially California, Oregon and Washington), the upper Midwest, parts of Texas, Colorado and the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Pulmonary abnormalities can occur secondary to the effects of the leptospiral toxin on lung tissue, and from fluid exudation secondary to vasculitis. Patients suffering from the peracute form of the disease may exhibit severe symptoms such as rapid breathing and rapid, irregular pulse, coughing up of blood, tarry feces, nosebleed and petechial hemorrhage (red or purple spots on the skin). Leptospirosis From Rivers, Streams and Lakes Stray dogs can get leptospirosis, a contagious disease among dogs and a zoonotic disease, from drinking river, stream or lake water. Testing was by challenge only and failed to deliver serological (antibody) proof, so I am not inclined to accept it as proving anything. They were just 8 weeks … Continue reading Leptospirosis Vaccine Side Effects → In general, veterinarians should suspect Leptospirosis dogs with signs of: Dogs with acute renal failure may show polyuria (excessive urine production), polydipsia (excessive thirst), dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, lack of appetite, lethargy, abdominal pain or some combination of these signs. The MAT is considered the gold standard serologic test to confirm Leptospirosis. Vaccinations against leptospirosis are associated with severe adverse reactions in dogs and have been linked to 120 deaths over the last two years. Spirochetes are spiral, or corkscrew-shaped bacteria which infiltrate the system by burrowing into the skin. Vaccine Side Effects in Dogs and Cats Vaccine Side Effects Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment Ask the Vet Vaccinations for dogs and cats. Although the infection is transmissible to humans, few cases are reported in the U.S. Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease spread through the urine of infected rats, wildlife, and canines. The disease — known in … Leptospirosis and Your Pet: A CDC Fact Sheet. This second … It takes about 4-12 days after exposure for a … There are many different presentations one might find in a dog with a pathogenic strain of Leptospirosis. Localized Demodectic Mange in Dogs. I have documented several cases of tumors, especially from the “whombo-combo” vaccines that include Leptospirosis. If you’ve done your research on the lepto vaccine, then you now not only know the dangers of the disease itself, but also the vaccine. Two of of the most commonly seen members of this subspecies are the L. grippotyphosa and L. Pomona bacteria. Leptospirosis in Dogs. The two most important strikes against it are …. Liver Tumors and Cancers in Dogs and Cats. This occurs because the dog’s immune system reacts both locally and … The newer, updated vaccine is safer for dogs and gives them extra protection. (2) Leptospiral pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome (LPHS) is increasingly recognized in dogs with acute leptospirosis. DOSAGE: Aseptically inject 1 mL (1 dose) subcutaneously into healthy dogs. Leptospirosis is an infection caused by Leptospira bacteria. That’s what veterinarians are here for! The Nobivac L4 lepto vaccine, which was rolled out in the UK by Merck’s UK subsidiary, MSD Animal Health, is reportedly causing adverse effects in the dogs receiving it, including epilepsy, swollen glands, blindness and death. PRODUCT LABEL. In some dogs an anaphylactic shock-like reaction may occur shortly after vaccination. Dr Jordan found holistic medicine in 2000 at the AHVMA American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association Conference. The bacteria that cause leptospirosis are spread through the urine of infected animals and can survive in water or soil for weeks to months. Given the high number of lepto serovars and the fact that there are so many strains of the disease that are not covered by the vaccines, the latter seems likely. A drug company sponsored article by Dr Richard Goldstein of Cornell on the most recent lepto information states that the vaccine “appears” to work but, admits this is based on data provided by the company that makes the vaccine. The vaccine does NOT prevent your pet from catching leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a dangerous bacterial infection that can cause severe health problems for your dog. Signs of pancreatitis have been detected in some dogs by abdominal ultrasound. In people and dogs, the jaundice of acute leptospirosis appears to be associated with minimal histopathologic changes in the liver, suggesting that it is due to the “cholestasis of sepsis” rather than to hepatocellular damage. Human leptospirosis is hard to diagnose because humans develop flu-like symptoms. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be passed from animals to humans. Yes, I want to get emails from Dogs Naturally. I know several cases where the canine vaccine was undoubtedly the cause of a human contracting the disease. Other reported lepto symptoms include conjunctivitis, uveitis and acute respiratory distress causing tachypnea, dyspnea or Leptospiral pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome (LPHS), which has been reported most frequently in dogs in some parts of Europe. Vaccinate your dog against leptospirosis. A significant additional risk is that the Leptospirosis vaccines all contain aluminum adjuvant. Dallas, Texas, 3131 McKinney Ave Ste 502 PMB 25208, 75204-2426, Copyright 2020 CertaPet, all rights reserved. They may be reluctant to move and very sensitive to pain or touch, and have enlarged lymph nodes. One last downside of the vaccine is that it needs annual boosting to remain effective. The first common reaction may be anaphylaxis—which simply means an allergic reaction to the vaccine. In affected dogs, symptoms may start to occur within eight to ten days after exposure, and include fever, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain, blood in the urine, lack of appetite and lethargy. (Find out if you should be vaccinating your dog. To find a holistic or homeopathic vet near you or to find one who will do phone consultations, visit The Academy Of Veterinary Homeopathy. After that, it should be boosted annually. Some dogs display mild or no signs of disease, while others develop severe illness or death, often as a result of kidney injury. Sera from patients with leptospirosis have antibodies against several protein antigens ( Naiman et al., 2002 ). Likewise, Dr Jean Dodds does not advise the use of the Leptospirosis vaccine. © 2020 Dogs Naturally Magazine Inc. Leptospirosis can cause severe clinical disease in dogs, including acute hepatic and/or renal failure. Signs of leptospirosis don’t always show themselves, and when they do, it’s usually between for and twelve days after infection. Darkfield microscopy is timelier relative to the stage of disease, but lacks sensitivity and specificity. The state failed to find any Leptospira in bodies of water he’d frequented, suggesting it was highly probable he was infected by his vaccinated dog. Some of the reasons for this are: In Leptospirosis, the signs of disease are often vague and nonspecific, and they don’t necessarily correlate to the serovar of infection. Autoimmune disease can also result from bacterin vaccination use. As pet parents, we want to ensure that our beloved pooch is well protected from diseases that may be easily preventable. Ask your veterinarian if the leptospirosis vaccine is right for your dog. Because of its lack of efficacy and the very great risk of adverse reactions, Leptospirosis vaccination is not the answer. If not, the client is not getting full disclosure. Ironically, vaccinated animals can also shed the bacteria and infect humans. Lithotripsy in Dogs and Cats. Leptospirosis in dogs can be more dangerous as they are more exposed to contaminated sources. ), Dr Patricia Jordan DVM is a 1986 graduate of the North Carolina College of Veterinary Medicine. Please support the hard working holistic vets who make this information possible. If you suspect your dog to be carrying Leptospira, take preventive measures when you’re around them. Minimizing the use of vaccines, pharmaceuticals and other chemicals and toxins, such as cleaning products, fertilizers, etc., in his environment will also contribute to more robust immunity. I’m off topic somewhat here but we had such a harrowing experience when we took our two little puppies to have their first vaccination, I wanted to warn you about this vaccine. Protein extracts prepared from a pathogenic Leptospira can induce protective immunity against challenge with a heterologous serovar strain in an experimental animal model ( Narita et al., 2005 ). The prevented fraction for leptospirosis 15.5 months after vaccination was 100% with a corresponding 95% confidence interval of 80.3% to 100%. Normal activities such as handling dogs’ beds and bowls, face licking, and cleaning up dog urine can now be vehicles for the bacteria. Lupoid Onychodystrophy in Dogs. Because it is a difficult test to maintain, CDC is the only laboratory in the United States that offers the MAT for Leptospirosis testing for humans. One such case involved a duck hunter in California. The disease is caused not just by one specific strain of Leptospira spp. By: Simran Mudaliar Updated: September 10, 2020. The content on this website is not meant to replace veterinary advice. Lupoid Onychodystrophy in Dogs. The very wide range of symptoms makes Leptospirosis diagnosis problematic and it can also be difficult to confirm the disease through laboratory testing. Just one dose of Doxycycline or another antibiotic will convert a PCR positive to a negative, even in the face of renal failure. The most common side effects are a mild and transient increase in bod y temperature (≤ 1°C) that may occur for a few days after vaccination, with some pups showing less activity and/or a reduced appetite. This vaccine costs anywhere between $15 and $30 per shot, meaning that getting the two shots every year would cost between $30 and $60 annually. Introduction of the organism through skin woun… Lithotripsy in Dogs and Cats. But we can protect ourselves and our pets. So, we’ve made it easy for you! Unfortunately, many vets recommending Leptospirosis vaccines rely on information provided by the drug companies that make the vaccines, and, as a result, are not aware that the vaccine does not confer immunity – despite the fact that even the AVMA guidelines warn that 30% of dogs may not respond to the vaccine. Although it is treatable with antibiotics if it is caught early, the disease can be fatal to dogsparticularly puppies and young animals. Other diagnostic methods are available including culture, microscopic agglutination test (MAT), immunofluorescence, darkfield microscopy, other serologic tests, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). With certain diseases, including leptospirosis, a large number of agents are involved in the disease. While experts might be refusing to use them on their own dogs because the risk of infection isn’t that high, it’s more likely due to the great number and significance of adverse reactions. The organism survives better in stagnant water rather than flowing, and can live 180 days in wet soil or marshy areas, and longer in standing water. According to a study conducted in northern California between 2001 and 2010, the average cost of treatment for a dog sick with leptospirosis was $5459. Keep in mind that we link these companies and their products because of their quality and not because of the commission we receive from your purchases. The first thing to know is whether Leptospirosis is endemic in the places your dog frequents. Your veterinarian may recommend that your dog receive a leptospirosis vaccination more than once a year, depending on your region. However, it is NOT a notifiable disease. Aluminum is a grade three (out of four) carcinogen. Dogs at risk of contracting Leptospirosis are usually outdoor animals or hunting dogs. If you think your dog is reacting to his lepto vaccination, then try not to wait more than 24 hours. This means it’s a good idea to learn more about Leptospirosis because ultimately, it’s your choice whether or not he receives the vaccine. Exposure to rodents and other wildlife is an additional risk factor. One thing to consider too is that it is possible to be carrying Leptospira upon return to their hometown, which could mean starting an outbreak of the disease in an otherwise lepto-free area. Although the vaccine doesn’t protect against all strains of leptospires, it does provide protection against the most common ones. Fortunately, a plan for leptospirosis vaccination has been around for decades and the vaccines are being improved every couple of years. The VMD is aware of media reports and concerns raised on social media following cases of serious adverse events in dogs given the vaccine containing four strains of Leptospira bacteria. These are areas where your dog will be at higher risk, meaning being infected by the bacteria will be easier. However, PCR testing must be done before any treatment is given. The vaccination covers the most common types of lepto but your dog can still get other strains, so it’s good to take other measures to prevent lepto as well. Vaccines are there to help vets prevent diseases that can otherwise take your pets life. You can minimize your dog’s exposure to the disease by limiting his access to marshy or heavily irrigated areas, ponds and any stagnant surface water. Your veterinarian may recommend that your dog receive a leptospirosis vaccination more than once a year, depending on your region. Humans can contract Leptospirosis through contact with the urine of an infected animal, but because there are only 100 to 200 cases per year in the US, the CDC does not even consider it a reportable disease. Very rarely are systemic reactions life threatening as they usually disappear a few days post vaccination. Leptospirosis can affect many animals, from wild to domesticated. Subunit vaccines would also have fewer side effects than killed whole cell vaccine. Healthy dogs who come in contact with the bacteria may never exhibit symptoms. Peracute infections usually move so fast that treatment is impossible to deliver in time. Lice in Dogs and Cats. Muscle pain, stiffness, weakness, trembling, or reluctance to move can be seen in dogs with leptospirosis. Other dogs might have fever, shivering, tender muscles, thirst, jaundice and inflamed eyes. Keep puppies indoors until two weeks after their primary course of vaccinations and keep them away from unvaccinated pets. Dogs occasionally experience shock responses soon after getting these vaccines. Service Cat: Can a Cat Be a Service Animal? All product and Company names are Trademarks™ or Registered® trademarks of their respective holders. Your dog can still become infected by a different strain. Leptospirosis is spread by rats and other rodents, potentially killing dogs and humans. You can change your mind and unsubscribe anytime. However, in dogs, beneficial effects associated with simultaneous administration of different vaccine types of antigen for the same disease have not been documented. Blood, urine, serum, or other clinical specimens are usually tested. Take for example the influenza vaccination in humans. If you are still tempted to risk vaccinating your dog despite what you’ve read here, remember that in all but the peracute cases, Leptospirosis is highly treatable, and the vaccine doesn’t prevent peracute cases anyway. Now, vaccines are there to help us! Leptospirosis is a potentially serious disease caused by the bacterium Leptospira interrogans. It affects dogs but can also infect a wide variety of domestic and wild animals as well as humans. It is a bacterial infection that can be seen in rodents, livestock and even wildlife. I’m off topic somewhat here but we had such a harrowing experience when we took our two little puppies to have their first vaccination, I wanted to warn you about this vaccine. 2, 3 It has been reported in over 150 mammalian species. Due to molecular mimicry with antigens, the identification of disease presence is complicated by cross reactivity with other different disease organisms such as syphilis, Lyme, Legionnaires, HIV and autoimmune disease. Leptospirosis is an infectious bacterial disease that can be deadly when left untreated in dogs. Theories that the vaccines are responsible for serovar shift in the first place have never been confirmed. And dogs also may experience negative effects from vaccines. The third common reaction may be systemic reactions—which simply means your dog may develop fevers, loss of appetite, lethargy or depression. This is because during their roams and walks they are more exposed to rodents and animal farms who might be infected. (We offer a Free Vaccination Guide to help you decide what to vaccinate your dog for and when. Some dogs show no signs of illness. Both saprophytic and pathogenic species exist in … The common clinical signs of the adverse reactions to the lepto vaccine are quite diverse. Miniature Dachshunds and West Highland White Terriers seem to have slightly increased risk for this type of reaction. There are documented cases of the antigens for both Leptospira and Lyme disease vaccines creating the same diseases we are trying to prevent with the vaccination. These may be the result of vasculitis, myositis, or nephritis. No Guts, No Glory! The foundation of a strong immune system is in the gut, so start by giving your dog the best nutrition you can, preferably in the form of a species appropriate raw diet. For example, some dogs may develop granulomas or growths at the site of injection. Leptospirosis vaccine for dogs is perhaps the most controversial vaccine pet parents talk about. Lung Cancer in Dogs and Cats. Concern about side-effects are relatively new; clinical canine leptospirosis caused by L. canicola and L. icterhaemorrhagiae is rare in the US, a situation attributed to widespread administration of the vaccine. infection. —which simply means your dog may develop fevers, loss of appetite, lethargy or depression. Acute kidney injury has been the most common presentation for canine leptospirosis in recent years. Older dogs will need to receive at least two vaccines, two to four weeks apart, followed by a booster vaccine in one year and then every one to three years thereafter. Vaccine-induced interference with diagnostic tests. The older commercialized vaccine, also known as lepto 2, protected them against only two strains of the disease. When veterinarians advocate these vaccines, are they aware of the potential for these serious, sometimes fatal adverse events, most of which go unreported? It contains Distemper, Parvovirus, Hepatitis or Adenovirus, Parainfluenza – and yes, the “L” is Leptospirosis. But, what do you do as a pet owner when you know that the vaccination against a disease can be just as dangerous? If you feel your dog is at very high risk, you may want to consult a homeopath about protecting him with homeopathic nosodes. When I'm not working as a pet journalist, I spend time playing with my pet birds Millie and Albie. Leptospirosis is a potentially serious disease caused by the bacterium Leptospira interrogans. Other reported lepto symptoms include conjunctivitis, uveitis and acute respiratory distress causing tachypnea, dyspnea or Leptospiral pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome (LPHS), which has been reported most frequently in dogs in some parts of Europe. Dr Schultz does not vaccinate his own dogs even though he lives in on a farm in a Leptospira endemic area. The disease does occur more in tropical climates where there is likelihood of standing water or flooding; rat infestations in densely populated urban areas are also a factor. The main transmitters of the disease are dogs, rodents, and farm animals. How can I stop my dog getting leptospirosis? (Is your dog experiencing side effects from his vaccinations? So, not all dogs will be affected the same way—or have the same reactions as other dogs. Those who are in direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected animals or with water or soil also contaminated will result in a very high chance of getting a leptospirosis infection. Lyme Disease in Dogs. Leptospirosis From Rivers, Streams and Lakes Stray dogs can get leptospirosis, a contagious disease among dogs and a zoonotic disease, from drinking river, stream or lake water. Curious to learn more about the leptospirosis vaccine for dogs? Visit Dr Jordan's website or book a consultation with her at Dr-Jordan.com. Other dogs might have fever, shivering, tender muscles, thirst, jaundice and inflamed eyes. If your dog spends a lot of time playing in ponds or lakes or drinking out of puddles or standing water, he may be at risk, depending on the incidence of Leptospirosis in your area. We have something for that … Click here ). We’ve all heard the stories of anti-vaxxers who avoid vaccinating their child. In Hong Kong, it’s common for vaccinated dogs to die from lepto. But leading immunologists such as Dr Ronald Schultz do not recommend the Leptospirosis vaccine. There are many problems with the Leptospirosis vaccine, which is why many vets stay away from it. PCR testing is therefore the preferred diagnostic method, offered by Oregon State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and IDEXX Laboratories. Will the vaccination always cover my dog against leptospirosis? It’s best to keep your dog’s vaccinations up-to-date. If untreated, leptospirosis is fatal. Leptospirosis in dogs is most likely to occur in a warm moist environment, during rainy seasons in temperate climates and in tropical and subtropical climates. If your dog has had leptospirosis before, it is still important to get it vaccinated. For the most part, the distemper vaccine and most of the vaccines it can be combined with are very safe. In truth, the germ is not the problem: a healthy immune system is the key factor in your dog’s ability to resist disease. And the UK organization Canine Health Concern conducted a survey in which many dog owners reported that their vaccinated dogs were still getting lepto. These sudden reactions that can go from mild to life-threatening can be treated with the commonly known EpiPens and antihistamines. In the US, several veterinary clinics (one a referral hospital) have informed me of cases of vaccinated dogs still contracting Leptospirosis. A lack of appetite, lethargy, vomiting, and diarrhea are common signs that the puppy is infected with the leptospira bacteria. Lung Cancer in Dogs and Cats. Leptospirosis can cause severe clinical disease in dogs, including acute hepatic and/or renal failure. Myalgia is commonly reported in human leptospirosis and is associated with the septicemic phase of the disease. PRODUCT LABEL. Leptospirosis can cause a broad range of clinical signs in any combination. Leptospirosis illness leads to death in approximately 20 percent of cases, usually because the early symptoms are common to many disease… That is not to say that dogs who live primarily indoors in cities are not at risk. The vaccine for leptospirosis is one of the mandatory vaccines, so will always be given to your puppy as part of the vaccination programme put in place by your vet. Within the genus Leptospira there are 20 different species and more than 200 different serovars (a group of closely related microorganisms with a common set of antigens). If your dog frequently travels to areas that are humid and hot, or to places where leptospirosis presence is either confirmed or suspected, you should vaccinate them. Leptospirosis can cause a sudden severe illness or develop over time. It would be extremely expensive to monitor the environment for the presence of specific serovars, so because the disease is scarce in humans, no such program currently exists. The leptospirosis vaccine cost varies from state to state, and from clinic to clinic, so it’s hard to say how much vaccinating your dog against this disease might cost. In addition, side effects of the vaccine can cause painful swelling. Thirty states do report human cases and the highest prevalence of human infection through Leptospirosis transmission is in Hawaii. In Cuba, human exposure to Leptospirosis in post-hurricane flooding in 2007 was very successfully handled this way, with 2.3 million people safely immunized at a small fraction of the cost of vaccination. —or have the same reactions as other dogs. It’s best to keep your dog’s vaccinations up-to-date. So, now it may seem like choosing the lesser of two evils — do you let your dog face exposure to leptospira or do you vaccinate your pooch and hope that there are no adverse reactions? The risk, no matter how low, associated with vaccines has many considering whether or not to vaccinate their pets, but vaccines have come a long way and they’re constantly being improved. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be passed from animals to humans.Leptospirosis in humans can cause flu-like symptoms and and even progress to severe illness with kidney or liver failure or meningitis. There are many cases on record of vaccinated dogs contracting the disease, both in the US and abroad. Many vets are afraid of Leptospirosis, for a couple of reasons. Lipomas in Dogs and Cats. Lice in Dogs and Cats. Some of them have seen dogs become very ill with the disease while others worry because it’s a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be contracted by humans. Leptospirosis in humans can be flu-like or, left untreated, can be quite serious. This means that only certain dogs should be vaccinated against lepto. Isolation of leptospires from a clinical specimen is confirmatory, but lacks sensitivity and specificity, as some pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains fall into the same serovar, and growth may be slow. If the vaccine tends to have a large amount of the bacterial protein, then chances are some dogs may develop some form of an allergic reaction. The results of this study demonstrate the vaccine is able to prevent leptospirosis and leptospiruria due to Leptospira grippotyphosa for at least 470 days (15.5 months) following vaccination of 9-week-old puppies with a 1 mL dose, subcutaneously, twice, twenty one days apart.. Because the vaccine will not protect your dog for the rest of their life, if your pup is still at high risk of getting leptospirosis, it should be boosted a year after the conclusion of the first set of two vaccines. It is recommended for dogs to be vaccinated against this vicious, preventable disease, and those who are at particular risk of infection should be definitely protected against it by vaccination. Leptospirosis has been found in all areas — rural, suburban, and urban. Less common manifestations of canine leptospirosis include … Older dogs will need to receive at least two vaccines, two to four weeks apart, followed by a booster vaccine in one year and then every one to three years thereafter. Either the vaccine doesn’t work, or there are serovars causing the disease that the vaccine doesn’t cover. THE BVA has expressed concern that recent articles in the mainstream press regarding the Nobivac L4 leptospirosis vaccine (MSD Animal Health) risk scaring dog owners into not having their dogs vaccinated. The original two-way vaccines contained only the L. canicola and L. icterohaemorrhagiae serovars; The more recent four-way vaccines also contain L. grippotyphosa and L. pomona. Dogs who live in particularly humid, hot climates are also at a greater risk of infection, especially those in areas where floods are frequent. This disease, like many others, is particularly aggressive towards pregnant women and people with compromised immune systems. Leptospirosis can cause a broad range of clinical signs in any combination. Puppies first vaccination I’m writing this post as a warning about your puppy and leptospirosis vaccine side effects. The second common reaction a dog may develop is. Although not very common, the clinical signs can range from mild symptoms to life threatening emergencies. Lipomas in Dogs and Cats. Leptospira vaccines for dogs are now available in two forms: The four-way vaccine is the recommended choice because L. canicola and L. icterohaemorrhagieae infections appear to be in decline, while L. grippotyphosa is on the rise. THE BVA has expressed concern that recent articles in the mainstream press regarding the Nobivac L4 leptospirosis vaccine (MSD Animal Health) risk scaring dog owners into not having their dogs vaccinated. With the number of leptospirosis cases on the rise in the United States, there is a new, improved vaccine in the market. Conventional treatment with antibiotics (typically Doxycycline) usually takes quick effect but aren’t always necessary if working with a homeopathic vet; homeopathy is very successful in treating lepto. , he would not vaccinate his dog. ) contaminated sources to other pets or hospital staff states there. Determining which serovar is the excuse given for the most commonly seen members of this subspecies are the L. and. 100 % effective abdominal pain, redness, soreness or swellings at site... But rather by any of a number of leptospirosis be extremely challenging were a normal cold and don t... Was undoubtedly the cause of a number of dogs carrying the disease is allergic to one of the.! I have documented several cases where the canine leptospirosis in humans can be fatal to dogsparticularly puppies young! ) and hematuria ( blood in the absence of marked inflammatory cell infiltrate has found... Well as humans humans and animals can also shed the Leptospira bacteria serious... 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