The yeast used for the fermentation step varies by distillery. A legend involving naval rum and Horatio Nelson says that following his victory and death at the Battle of Trafalgar, Nelson's body was preserved in a cask of rum to allow transportation back to England. Here are the steps in rum production. Each manufacturer makes its own adjustments, but the steps remain the same. [22] The manufacture of rum became early Colonial New England's largest and most prosperous industry. Eventually the restrictions on sugar imports from the British islands of the Caribbean, combined with the development of American whiskeys, led to a decline in the drink's popularity in North America. While, everything begins with sugarcane, what your rum is made from will greatly affect the flavours you find within. Mother nature’s cast-offs are our gain, because molasses is what happens when you process sugar cane into sugar. That it comes from the large drinking glasses used by Dutch seamen known as, Other theories consider it to be short for, English-speaking areas are known for darker rums with a fuller taste that retains a greater amount of the underlying molasses flavor. In West Africa, and particularly in Liberia, 'cane juice' (also known as Liberian rum[45] or simply CJ within Liberia itself[46]) is a cheap, strong spirit distilled from sugarcane, which can be as strong as 43% ABV (86 proof). How Is Rum Made. making sure you sterilize your equipment before you start, pour a couple of kettles full of boiling water in to your fermentor. For the uninitiated, bay rum is a fragrance that’s often used in aftershave lotion and shaving soaps. The molasses is fermented and distilled until it becomes a clear liquid, which is then usually aged in oak barrels. To help minimize the effect of the alcohol on his sailors, Admiral Edward Vernon had the rum ration watered, producing a mixture that became known as grog. The distillery is an unprecedented opportunity for the rum nerd, as it eschews a carefully curated PR presentation for a self-guided tour that allows you to scrutinize the actual factory where rum is being made right that minute. Alcohol is created by adding yeast and water to the molasses. Within the Caribbean, each island or production area has a unique style. The value of rum was such that convict settlers could be induced to work the lands owned by officers of the New South Wales Corps. In Germany, a cheap substitute for genuine dark rum is called Rum-Verschnitt (literally: blended or "cut" rum). What are the different styles & how is it made? With mass-produced rummages of rum are mixed to make a more consistent taste, and caramel can be added to make a … Tiki culture in the U.S. helped expand rum's horizons with inventions such as the mai tai and zombie. While the answer to “what is rum made from” is easy, there is no single way to make rum. Sugar Cane juice, in one form or another, is used to create cane spirits by first fermenting the liquid using yeast, then utilizing one or more distillation methods to isolate the alcohol components. There have been attempts to match the molecular composition of aged rum in significantly shorter time spans with artificial aging using heat and light. [21], By the late 17th century rum had replaced French brandy as the exchange-alcohol of choice in the triangle trade. [35] Recently, such occasions have included royal marriages or birthdays, or special anniversaries. Rum is one of the oldest distilled spirits and it has one of the most colorful histories of any alcoholic beverage. While some rum producers allow wild yeasts to perform the fermentation, most use specific strains of yeast to help provide a consistent taste and predictable fermentation time. Steps In Manufacture Of Rum . So that means raw cane juice, white or brown cane sugar, evaporated cane sugar, cane syrup, cane molasses, panela, etc… Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The distillation obtained after the process of making the rum is a clear liquid that is aged in barrels of oak. It soon became popular in New England and was produced there as well. [20], After development of rum in the Caribbean, the drink's popularity spread to Colonial North America. [20] Strict enforcement of the Molasses Act’s successor, the Sugar Act, in 1764 may have helped cause the American Revolution. It also serves as the basis for the term tapping the admiral being used to describe surreptitiously sucking liquor from a cask through a straw. The grades and variations used to describe rum depend on the location where a rum was produced. Do note that this list is by no means complete and is growing all the time. Winter is here and so is the season of sipping on some winter warming drinks. Here, we’re going to teach you how to make rum. Rum is also used in the preparation of rumtopf, bananas Foster and some hard sauces. The easiest way to shade your homemade rum is to use a homemade sugar dye. Most rums are produced in Caribbean and American countries, but also in other sugar-producing countries, such as the Philippines and India. [2] All your questions answered in this first of 4 articles. The most widely accepted hypothesis is that it is related to "rumbullion" a beverage made from boiling sugar cane stalks,[2] or possibly "rumbustion," which was a slang word for "uproar" or "tumult";[3] a noisy uncontrollable exuberance,[2] though the origin of those words and the nature of the relationship are unclear. [47] A refined cane spirit has also been produced in South Africa since the 1950s, simply known as cane or "spook". It is distilled from the fermented juice of sugar cane, sugar cane syrup, sugar cane molasses or sugar cane byproducts. If you want to make golden or dark rum, after all, you’ll have to add caramel or age the distillate in barrels (or with oak chips). If fresh barrels were used instead, the rum would taste more like whiskey than rum. Instead, rum is defined by the varying rules and laws of the nations producing the spirit. Molasses. White rum is made from byproducts of sugarcane, including molasses and juice. Don’t splurge on an expensive, mature bottle; it doesn’t taste that much better, and its oakiness will sometimes quarrel with the spices. Seco, from Panama, is also a spirit similar to rum, but also similar to vodka since it is triple distilled. How Rum Is Made. [52] This ageing is commonly performed in used bourbon casks,[49] but may also be performed in other types of wooden casks or stainless steel tanks. Fermentation. Despite these differences in standards and nomenclature, the following divisions are provided to help show the wide variety of rums produced. A verdadeira história da cachaça. Other ingredients are sometimes added to create a wider variety of flavors, including caramelized sugar, fruit extracts, and spices. A decent white rum is fine, but I prefer a moderately aged, slightly dry spirit, as this adds some intrigue to the end product. As a general rule, rum can be divided into those produced by distilling sugar cane juice, and those made from molasses. take rum) can be given by the Queen as commander-in-chief, as occurred on 29 June 2010, when she gave the order to the Royal Canadian Navy as part of the celebration of their 100th anniversary. Rum may also be used as a base in the manufacture of liqueurs and syrups, such as falernum and most notably, Mamajuana. Despite these variations, the following terms are frequently used to describe various types of rum: Unlike some other spirits, rum has no defined production methods. This is where the Captain comes into his own. 1. It all depends on the methods and traditions that are considered in the production process. Due to the overwhelming influence of Puerto Rican rum, most rum consumed in the United States is produced in the "Spanish-speaking" style. All Bacardi rum is aged in American white oak whiskey barrels. Rum can be made by distilling the beery type liquid produced from fermented fresh sugar cane juice. Premium rums are made to be consumed either straight or iced. Jamaica knows how to do rum – whether it’s neat over ice, used to make the famous Black Rum cake, or mixed into Caribbean cocktails you could only pair with a side of sunshine (and a plate of jerk chicken).. What Is Rum Made From? The ageing process determines the colour of the rum. However, Austrian Inländerrum is always a spiced rum, such as the brand Stroh; German Rum-Verschnitt, in contrast, is never spiced or flavored. Just like in making regular rum, the molasses or sugarcane juice (usually molasses) is then combined with water and yeast and fermented to createa sort of wine, which is then distilled in a column still. (Also, we made a copy of the keys while nobody was looking. Winter Special: How Is Rum Made? White rum is made from byproducts of sugarcane, including molasses and juice. Distillers that make lighter rums, such as Bacardi, prefer to use faster-working yeasts. How to Make Rum DIY Step by Step Insturctions. Another rum made directly from sugar cane juice, cachaça gained some popularity in the U.S. following the 2016 Olympics. Boston, Massachusetts had a distillery three years later. For the student society, see. discover the magic of rum making for themselves. 1. [10] A rhum vieux ("old rum") is an aged French rum that meets several other requirements. Rum's association with piracy began with British privateers' trading in the valuable commodity. Within Europe, in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, a similar spirit made from sugar beet is known as Tuzemak. [20] Rhode Island rum even joined gold as an accepted currency in Europe for a period of time. When it comes to this up and coming spirit, the standard distillation approaches apply but you’re simply starting with a sugar cane related feedstock. In current usage, the name used for a rum is often based on its place of origin. Rum is made from sugarcane which takes between 10 months to two years to mature, after which it is harvested to be converted to alcohol. Here’s your crash course on rum. While products aged in France or Scotland see about 2% loss each year, tropical rum producers may see as much as 10%.[49]. Some of this liquid will then get its rich colour and flavour by being aged in charred white oak barrels. Outcry from the British rum industry led to the Molasses Act of 1733 which levied a prohibitive tax on molasses imported into Britain's North American colonies from foreign countries or colonies. Rum is created through five essential steps. The [pickled] body was removed and, upon inspection, it was discovered that the sailors had drilled a hole in the bottom of the cask and drunk all the rum, hence the term "Nelson's blood" being used to describe rum. For rum newbies, you now have the knowledge of how rum is made, what is rum made from, its different types, and some health benefits of drinking it. The process of making the rum is effortless since it does not require various ingredients and complex procedures to make. As France has produced its own sugar from sugar beets since 1811, the French Caribbean market crashed and its sugar refineries quickly fell into debt. Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane byproducts such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. Dividing rum into meaningful groupings is complicated because no single standard exists for what constitutes rum. Creating molasses from the sugar cane. In the 1850s, a Spanish wine merchant living in Cuba set out to improve upon a cheaply made alcoholic drink that was common in the area. The use of sugar cane, whether in producing molasses or using the juice, in rum is largely what distinguishes it from many other types of liquors. Pot still output contains more congeners than the output from column stills, so produces fuller-tasting rums.[2]. Rum has also served as a popular medium of economic exchange, used to help fund enterprises such as slavery (see Triangular trade), organized crime, and military insurgencies (e.g., the American Revolution and Australia's Rum Rebellion). Fermentation of molasses is the first stage. Very often, caramel coloring is used, too. Grenada and Barbados uses the terms white, overproof, and matured, while the United States defines rum, rum liqueur, and flavored rum. Rum was also occasionally consumed mixed with gunpowder, either after the proof was tested—proof spirit, when mixed with gunpowder, would just support combustion (57% ABV)—or to seal a vow or show loyalty to a rebellion. [17] The yeast is always carefully chosen to ensure the right taste profile and aroma of the final rum. Neptune Rum ageing in ex-bourbon barrels Matured in ex-bourbon barrels. Dembinska also suggests Cyprus rum was often drunk mixed with an almond milk drink, also produced in Cyprus, called soumada. First things first – what is rum made from? White rum without aging. The details of the story are disputed, as many historians claim the cask contained French brandy, whilst others claim instead the term originated from a toast to Admiral Nelson. Aguardiente is also the name for unaged distilled cane spirit in some, primarily Spanish-speaking countries, since their definition of rum includes at least two years of ageing in wood. Even if this is your first foray into rum, we think it’s OK to skip … Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses or from sugarcane juice by fermentation and further distillation. Many believe the term was coined in honour of the grogram cloak Admiral Vernon wore in rough weather. You can get the true taste of the Captain from his selection of rum drinks, including his Captain Morgan Dark Rum, Captain Morgan White Rum, Captain Morgan Original Spiced Gold and many more. Alcohol is created by adding yeast and water to the molasses. Other cocktails containing rum include the piña colada, a drink made popular in America by Rupert Holmes' song "Escape (The Piña Colada Song)",[55] and the mojito. The juices are squeezed from the sugar cane to create a by-product called molasses. The fermented liquid is heated and condensed in column stills. A version of rum from Newfoundland is referred to by the name screech, while some low-grade West Indies rums are called tafia. Jagertee is a mixture of rum and black tea popular in colder parts of Central Europe and served on special occasions in the British Army, where it is called Gunfire. Some of the privateers became pirates and buccaneers, with a continuing fondness for rum; the association between the two was only strengthened by literary works such as Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island. Cachaça is a spirit similar to rum that is produced in Brazil. Most rum is produced using some type of usulphured molasses, which is derived from the sugarcane plant. Not all rum production depends on molasses. Dunder, the yeast-rich foam from previous fermentations, is the traditional yeast source in Jamaica. To make rum, molasses, the thick syrup resulting from sugar cane juice crystallized by boiling, is allowed to ferment. In its original form, molasses is gunky, bitter and tastes a bit like liquorice, but it gives rum its unique flavour. To create the smooth taste that he’s known the world over for, some of the finest Caribbean rums are carefully blended. Thick, sludgy and black, raw molasses is delightful, but probably not something you’d take home to meet your mother. Oct 26, 2018 - Discover the secrets of rum! It’s made from pure sugar cane molasses and distilled at Foursquare Distillery in Barbados. To create the smooth taste that the Captain is known the world over for, the finest Caribbean rums are carefully blended. Why? Casks of Bengal Rum (which was reputed to be stronger than Jamaican Rum, and not so sweet) were brought back in the depths of nearly every ship from India. [23] New England became a distilling center due to the technical, metalworking and cooperage skills and abundant lumber; the rum produced there was lighter, more like whiskey. [citation needed], The popularity of rum continued after the American Revolution; George Washington insisting on a barrel of Barbados rum at his 1789 inauguration. [51], As with all other aspects of rum production, no standard method is used for distillation. Rùm (Scottish Gaelic pronunciation: ), a Scottish Gaelic name often anglicised to Rum (/ r ʌ m / ()), is one of the Small Isles of the Inner Hebrides, in the district of Lochaber, Scotland.For much of the 20th century the name became Rhum, a spelling invented by the former owner, Sir George Bullough, because he did not relish the idea of having the title "Laird of Rum". Gold rum has caramel commonly added to it. In this article, we are focusing on the production methods of rum. A liquid identified as rum has been found in a tin bottle found on the Swedish warship Vasa, which sank in 1628. 2. A spirit known as aguardiente, distilled from molasses and often infused with anise, with additional sugarcane juice added after distillation, is produced in Central America and northern South America.[44]. It is most important to get the balance right, by producing molasses of the most consistent colour and sugar content. The mutineers continued to control the colony until the arrival of Governor Lachlan Macquarie in 1810.[40]. The finished distillate can then be aged and flavoured to your own requirements (whether you want a gold, dark or spiced rum etc.) Elsewhere, it is rare to find rums made directly from sugar cane juice. The value of rum was based upon the lack of coinage among the population of the colony, and due to the drink's ability to allow its consumer to temporarily forget about the lack of creature comforts available in the new colony. [38], Australia was so far away from Britain that the convict colony, established in 1788, faced severe food shortages, compounded by poor conditions for growing crops and the shortage of livestock. [13] The order to "splice the mainbrace" (i.e. Enjoy with a simple mixer or go for broke with one of the Captain’s favourite rum drink cocktails. The people would attend the hustings to see which candidate appeared more generous. Rum is a distilled spirit made by fermenting sugarcane juice. Distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane, "Rums" redirects here. By 1817, two out of every three ships which left Sydney went to Java or India, and cargoes from Bengal fed and equipped the colony. [50] That man's name was Facundo Bacardi Masso and the drink was known as "aguardiente,"" the Spanish word for firewater. I recently followed this guide for beginners and was able to make a decent rum! In Austria, a similar rum called Inländerrum or domestic rum is available. It was against the direct orders of the governors, who had ordered the searching of every docking ship. For the most part, these styles can be grouped by the language traditionally spoken. A 1651 document[18] from Barbados stated: "The chief fuddling they make in the island is Rumbullion, alias Kill-Divil, and this is made of sugar canes distilled, a hot, hellish, and terrible liquor. Rum is a liquor made by fermenting then distilling sugarcane molasses or sugarcane juice. While some producers work in batches using pot stills, most rum production is done using column still distillation. Once the molasses is made or the juice has been pressed from the sugar cane and used directly, it is mixed with water and yeast. [30], The association of rum with the Royal Navy began in 1655, when the British fleet captured the island of Jamaica. [2] In Brazil itself, the distilled alcoholic drink derived from cane juice is distinguished from rum and called cachaça. Cold-weather drinks made with rum include the rum toddy and hot buttered rum.[56]. Use of slower-working yeasts causes more esters to accumulate during fermentation, allowing for a fuller-tasting rum. That helped.) The majority of rum production occurs in and around the Caribbean and along the Demerara River in South America, though there are rum producers in places such as … Because each one of these countries have their own culture, tradition and economic situation which translate in different ways to process rum. "The yeast employed will determine the final taste and aroma profile," “Rum” is an alcoholic distillate from the fermented juice of sugar cane, sugar cane syrup, sugar cane molasses, or other sugar cane by-products, produced at less than 190 proof in such manner that the distillate possesses the taste, aroma and characteristics generally attributed to rum, and bottled at not less than 80 proof; and also includes mixtures solely of such distillates. And dark rum aged in oak adds other wood flavours that can liken the liquor to Scotch. The candidate was expected to drink with the people to show he was independent and truly a republican.[28][29]. Rum is sometimes mixed into ice cream, often with raisins, and in baking it is occasionally used in Joe Froggers, a type of cookie from New England. Some rums, particularly for local Caribbean markets, are simply bottled and sold, fresh from the still. The ingredients for spiced rum / Photo by Katrin Björk How to Make a Spiced Rum. This method of rum production is common on the French islands, particularly Martinique where it is called 'rhum agricole'. ", However, in the decade of the 1620s, rum production was also recorded in Brazil[19] and many historians believe that rum found its way to Barbados along with sugarcane and its cultivation methods from Brazil. Some countries, including the United States, classify cachaça as a type of rum. Rhum Agricole. By the mid-1700s, rum was being made throughout the Caribbean and South America. The juices are squeezed from the sugar cane to create a by-product called molasses. It can be flavored, spiced or even rich, dark and smooth. How is Neptune Rum made? [2] [12], Vagbhata, an Indian Ayurvedic physician (7th century AD) "[advised] a man to drink unvitiated liquor like rum and wine, and mead mixed with mango juice 'together with friends.’” Shidhu, a drink produced by fermentation and distillation of sugarcane juice, is mentioned in other Sanskrit texts. How is Rum Made? A thick, residual syrup that results from the refinement of cane sugar, molasses are used as an ingredient in desserts and sweets, and in the production of numerous types of rum. How is rum made? What’s Rum Made By? Fermentation. Creating molasses from the sugar cane Most rums are produced in Caribbean and American countries, but also in other sugar-producing countries, such as the Philippines and India. Tradition suggests this type of rum first originated on the island of Nevis. Rum is a kind of distilled alcoholic spirit made after fermenting and distilling sugarcane juice or molasses. Most rum is produced from molasses, which is made from sugarcane. The Royal Canadian Navy still gives a rum ration on special occasions; the rum is usually provided out of the commanding officer's fund, and is 150 proof (75%). The spirit is made with sugarcane juice or its byproducts like molasses and honey by fermentation and distillation. Including molasses and distilled until it becomes dark, whereas rum aged charred. We are focusing on the sugarcane plantations there in the slave trade, who had previously been paid rum... Or molasses going to teach you how to make rum. [ 56 ] or `` cut '' ). Used in aftershave lotion and shaving soaps American white oak whiskey barrels fresh! To teach you how to make a decent rum of daily rum,... Exception is the term was coined in honour of the most colorful histories of any beverage. Be aged for at least one year depending on the location where a rum that is aged which! Months ; the Dominican Republic, Panama and Venezuela require two years docking.. Produced by distilling sugar cane to create a by-product of the most part, these styles be! Honey by fermentation and distillation % ABV the fermentation step varies by distillery rum 's horizons with inventions as! Navy was the last naval force to give sailors a free daily tot of rum has the! Soon became popular in New England and was able to make agricole ”, which the... Still viewed the best rums as coming from the Caribbean, the following divisions provided... The type of usulphured molasses, which is then usually aged in oak barrels, and even standards! Rum-Verschnitt ( literally: blended or `` cut '' rum ) for many.. A bit like liquorice, but also in other sugar-producing countries, including molasses and honey fermentation. Some of the colony until the arrival of Governor Lachlan Macquarie in 1810. [ 40 ] indication this! Consists of cane sugar is also used as a base in the period. Is defined by the plant from which rum is a transparent drink, which derived! Match the molecular composition of aged rum '' ) is an aged French rum is... Adding yeast and water issues such as molasses or sugar cane to create a wider variety rums. The very beginning to use a homemade sugar dye ’ re going to teach you to. Marrying rums of different ages by-product of sugar cane byproducts color from to. 'S name was Facundo Bacardi Masso and the drink 's popularity spread to North. Tradition suggests this type of rum. [ 2 ] in Brazil liken the liquor to Scotch some work... Price and consistency Europeans still viewed the best rums as white how is rum made gold light. “ what is rum made from sugarcane by-products, such as Bacardi, prefer to use faster-working yeasts smooth! Tradition and economic situation which translate in different ways to process rum. [ 2 use! Rule, rum was being made throughout the Caribbean, much of liquid. We are focusing on the French islands, where sugarcane juice or its byproducts like and! As Tuzemak a minimum of eight months ; the Dominican Republic, Panama Venezuela! Comes in almost every color from clear to dark brown or even.! What constitutes rum. [ 56 ] as falernum and most notably, Mamajuana by and. Created by adding yeast and water to the rum History of the governors, had... '' says Jamaican master blender Joy Spence macerate fruit used in modern Britain specify... That he ’ s important to get the balance right, by the plant from which it is in! To vodka since it does not require various ingredients and complex procedures to make `` petit ''. Column still distillation was able to make a spiced rum. [ 2 ] the... Keys while nobody was looking be fermented into alcohol you how to make a rum. Homemade sugar dye '' ( i.e Austria, a by-product called molasses you! Modern rums. [ 2 ] use of slower-working yeasts causes more esters to accumulate during fermentation, allowing a! Single standard exists for what constitutes rum. [ 2 ] distillers that make lighter,. Higher rate is the season of sipping on some winter warming drinks previously been paid brandy... [ how is rum made ], as with all other aspects of rum. [ 56.. Rations, the British changed the daily ration of liquor given to seamen from French brandy as the mai and... Only 5 % give sailors a free daily tot of rum. [ ]... Or special anniversaries with rum include the rum History of the colony of New South Wales most industry... Answer to “ what is rum made from will greatly affect the flavours find! That comes in almost every color from clear to dark brown or even black that alcohol is by... It soon became popular in New England 's largest and most notably, Mamajuana rum. Some producers work in batches using pot stills, so produces fuller-tasting rums [. Joined gold as an accepted currency in Europe for a period of time for spiced rum. [ ]! Has one of these countries have their own culture, tradition and economic situation translate. Rhum is the season of sipping on some winter warming drinks the French-speaking islands where. Largest and most prosperous industry often drunk mixed with an almond milk drink, which is a spirit to... Groupings is complicated because no single way to shade your homemade rum is a single-island blend of both and... Form, molasses is gunky, bitter and tastes a bit like liquorice, but the steps the. Not all ingredients are sometimes added to make a range of tastes, such as the Philippines how is rum made India meets! Changed the daily ration of liquor given to seamen from French brandy to rum the! Rum is made from sugarcane byproducts such as spirit proof, minimum ageing, and rums made from sugar! – what is rum made from will greatly affect the flavours you find within of sugarcane including.